On April 15, 2023, fighting in Sudan’s capital, Khartoum, between the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), rapidly spread throughout the country. SAF leader Gen. Abdelfattah al-Burhan and RSF leader Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known as “Hemedti,” had jointly carried out a coup against the country’s transitional government in October 2021. Both forces have a history of violating international humanitarian and human rights law, notably in Darfur and during crackdowns against protesters. In 2022, the trial of Ali Kosheib, a former Janjaweed militia leader, charged with 31 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, began at the International Criminal Court. Arrest warrants against ex-president Omar al-Bashir and two of his associates remain outstanding.

map of Sudan